Cracking Your Calorie Code

Research Studies Bibliography


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Effects of regular and slow speed resistance training on muscle strength.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2001. Jun;41(2):154-8.


Hass, C.J. et al.  

Single vs. Multiple Sets in long-term recreational weightlifters.

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2000. 32:235-242.


Shrier, I.

Stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of local muscle injury: a critical review of the clinical and basic scientific literature.

Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine. 1999. 9: 221-227.


Thrash, K, et al.

Flexibility and strength training.

J Applied Sports Science Research. 1987. 1:74-75.


Kokkonen, J., et al.  

Acute muscle stretching inhibits maximal strength performance.

Research quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1998. 69:411-415.


Evetovich, T.K. et al.  

Effect of static stretching of the biceps brachii on torque, electromyography, and mechanomyography during concentric isokinetic muscle actions.

J Str. Cond. Res. 2003. 17:484-88.


De Vries, H.A.

Physiology of Exercise for PE and Athletics.

Dubuque , IA : Brown. 1974.


Beedle, B., et al.

Flexibility characteristics among athletes who weight train.

J Applied Sports Science Research. 1991. 5:150-154.


Campell WW, Barton, ML, Cyr-Campell D, et al.

Effects of an omnivorous diet compared with a lacto-vegetarian diet on resistance training-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle in older men.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 70:1032-1039.


Flynn, M.G., et al.

Fat storage in athletes: metabolic and hormonal responses to swimming and running.

Int J Sports Med. 1990. 11:433-440.


Gwinup, G.  

Weight loss w/o dietary restriction: efficacy of different forms of aerobic exercise.

Amer J Sports Med. 1987. 15:275-279.


Sheldahl, L.M,. et al.  

Effects of exercise in cool water on bodyweight loss.

Int J Obesity. 1982. 6:29-42.


Brenner, B.M., et al.  

Dietary protein intake and the progressive nature of kidney disease: the role of hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury in the pathogenesis of progressive glomelular sclerosis in aging, renal ablation and intrinsic renal disease.

New Eng J Med. 1982. 307: 652-659.


Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;538:563-70

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Jun;35(6):1042-8.

Acta Physiol Scand. 2003 Jun;178(2):165-73.

Appl Physiol. 2003 Sep;95(3):1045-54. Epub 2003

J Sports Sci. 2002 Dec;20(12):951-9.


National cancer institute/City Univ. of NY.

Balanced dieters 31% less likely to die and 20% lower risk of stroke, cancer and heart disease than those on “shunning” diets like Atkins, etc.

J of Amer Med assoc. Apr. 26, 2000.


Journal of Applied Physiology (2):386-392, 2000

Univ. of  Texas study cited in Nov. 2000 issue of Ironman Mag.

Can J Appl Physiol. Dec;20(4):480-6. 1995 .

Am J Physiol. 268(3):E514-520.

Flakoll, L.J. (2000). Faseb J. 14:A229.

Am J Physiol, 273(1 Pt 1):E122-9 1997

J Appl Physiol. 2000 Dec;25(6):524-35


Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, Jan. 2000.

Journal of Str. & Cond. (13):47-51,1999

Exer. & Sport Science Reviews 28(1):24-36, 2000.

Jour. of Str. & Cond. Reas. (13):353-359-1999.


Safran, M.R., W.E. Garrett, A.v. Seaber, R.R.

The role of warm up in muscular injury prevention.

Amer. Jour. of Sp. Med. 16:123-129, 1988.


WD, JM Irion and M Briggler.

The effect of time and frequency on static stretching on flexibility of the hamstring muscles.

Physical Therapy. 77 (10): 1090-1096, 1997.


I Shrier and K. Gossal.

Myths and Truths about Stretching.

Phys. & Sportsmed. 28.8 (2000).


Whitehead, J.M., McNeill, G. & Smith, J.S.

The effect of protein intake on 24-hour energy expenditure during energy restriction.

Itl. Journ. Of Obesity & Related Metabol. Disorders, 20, 727-732.


Achten, J, et. al.

The effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate feedings on the intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation.

J Sports Sci. 2003 Dec;21(12):1017-24.


Minor changes in a program prevents plateaus:

Neuromuscular adaptation to power and endurance work. 

Can. J. Appl. Sport Sci. 1:49-58. 1976.


Varying methods promote equal muscle and tendon tissue adaptations and strength improvements:

Effect of physical training on collagen. 

Ital. J. Biochem. 24:64-65. 1975;


Effect of eight weeks’ physical training on muscle and connective tissue: 

J. Geron. 32 (1):33-37. 1977.


Amt. of force applied: Regulation of bone mass by mechanical strain magnitude: 

Calcif. Tissue Int. 37:411-417. 1985.


The influence of strain rate on adaptive bone remodeling. 

J. Biomech. 15(10):767-781. 1982


Regulation of bone formation by applied dynamic loads. 

J. Bone Joint Surg. 66(3):397-402. 1984.


Journal or Internal Medicine, 2002; 5, 381-388.

JAMA. (1994) 28;272(24):1909-14


Human Bioenergetics and its applications.  Exercise Physiology. New York : Wiley. 1984

J. Appl. Sport Sci. Research. 5(1):22-34. 1991


Health and performance related adaptations to resistive training. 

Sports Med.  11(4):210-231. 1991.


Interference of strength devel. by simul. training for strength & endur.

Eur. J Appl. Physiol. 45:255-263.1980.


Berger, R. (1972, August).

Strength & Health, pp. 44-45, 70-71.


Hickson RC, et. al.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1981;13(1):13-6


Journal of Applied Sport Science Research. 5 (4): 219-227, 1991.

NSCA Journal 8 (3):52-53. 1986.


Ballor, DL. Et. al. Effect of exercise to rest ratio on plasma lactate concentration at work rates above and below maximum oxygen uptake.

Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 65(4):365-9. 1992.


Dr. Kosich Seminar 8/13/00:

  • TEE of carbs incr. met. by 10%, but protein increases it by 25%. This also confirmed by Dr. Colker of the Greenwich Diet (as printed in For Women First, Sept. 2000).
  • Stroke volume hits max at about 40%V02 and therefore gives cardio improvements at that (low) intensity.
  • Minimum duration is 15-20 min. sessions. Two 10 min. sessions in the same day is almost as good!
  • Epinephrine encourages fat to be released into blood stream. HIT releases the most epinephrine.
  • Strength training to failure has the same effect that cardio has on LDL.
  • 95% of dieters regain it in 2 years.
  • Muscles store about 1400 cal. of glucose, 320 in the liver, and 80 in the blood. Untrained muscles store about 13g/kg, trained store 32 and carbo-loaded can store 35-40 g/kg.
  • For every gram of glycogen that is stored, 3 grams of water have to accompany it. Re-hydration is key after a workout to replenish used glycogen from the high intensity workout! It can take up to two days to replenish this glycogen.
  • People tend to underreport their intake by 400-500 calories (or 25%) per day.
  • Steroids lower HDL.
  • Rapid weight loss is always water loss.
  • HR formulas over-predict 20% of the population.


Stich, V. et al. (2000)

Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise.

J App Phys. 88:1277-1283.


Corder, K.P. Potteiger, J.A., Mau, K.L., et. al.

Effects of active and passive recovery conditions on blood lactate, rating of perceived exertion and performance during resistance exercise.

Journal of Strength and Cond. Res. 14(2):1510156, 2000.


Exercisers get 25% more improvement with a trainer than without in 12 weeks.

Med & Sci. in Sp. & Exer. (6):1,175,2000.


Poortmans, J.R., et. al. (2000).

Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes?

Int. J. Sport Nut. Ex. Metab. 10:28-38.


Bossco C, et al. (2000).

Monitoring strength training: neuromuscular and hormonal profile.

Med. & Sci. in Sports and Exer. 32:202-208.


Eliakam, A., et. al. (2000).

Effect of single wrist exer on fribroblast growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor and growth hormone. Amer. J. Physiology. 279: R548-R553.


Preventing sarcopenia (muscle loss) with age:

-Bortz W.M J of Gerontology 56(9):M527-M528 Sept. 2001.

-Greenlund L.J. et, al. Mechanisms of Aging and Devel. 124(3):287-299, March 2003.

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-Roubenoff, r. et. Al. J. of Geron. 55(12): M716-724, Dec. 2000.

-Harridge, S.D. Scand. J of Med. 13(1): 34-39, Feb. 2003

-Pearson, S.J. et al. (2002). Med Sci Sp Exer. 34:199-1206.

-Ohio Univ. Physiologists (

-Akima, H., et al. (2001). Muscle function in 164 men and women aged 20-84 years. (no difference in strength and mass gains between age groups!

Medicine and Sci. in Sport and Exer. 33:220-226.


Taylor, R.; Price, T.B. et. al.

Direct measurement of change in muscle glycogen concentration after a mixed meal in normal subjects. Am. J. Physiology 265:E224-E229. 1993.


Flatt, J.P.: et. al.

Effects of dietary fat on postprandial substrate oxidation and on carbohydrate and fat balances.

J. Clin. Invest. 76:1019-1024. 1985.


Bonnadonna, R.C: Groop, L.C.: et. al.

Dose-dependent effects of insulin on plasma free fatty acid turnover and oxidation in humans.

Am. J. Physiology 259:E736-E750. 1990.


Komi, P.V.

Training of muscle strength and power: Interactions of neuromotoric, hypertrophic, and mechanincal factors.

Int. J. Sports Med. 7:10-15. 1986.


Dwyer, J.

Metabolic character of exercise at traditional intensities in cardiac patients and healthy persons.

J. of Cardiopulmunary Rehab. 14:189-196, 1994.


Tanaka, H., et. al.

J Am Coll Cardiol. 37(1):153-6. 2001.


Dehart-Beverly, M., C.F. Foster, J.P Portcari, D.C.W. Fater and R.P.M. Mikat.

Relationship between the talk test and ventilatory threshold.

Clinical Exercise Physiology 2(1):34-38, 2000.


US dept. of Health and Human Svs. Physical Activity and Health: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta , Ga. 1996


Annesi, J.J.

Effects of computer feedback on adheareance to exercise.

Perceptual and Motor Skills 87:723-730, 1998.


Dishman, R.K.

Exercise Adhearance: It’s impact on public health.

Human Kinetics: Champaign Ill. , 1988.        


Svedenhag, J., J. Seger.

Runninig on land and in water. Comparative exercise physiology.

Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 24(20):1155-1160. 1992.


Thompson, C.E., et al.

The effect of perceived activity choice on exercise adherence

J. of applied Social Psychology 10:436-443, 1980.


Stone, M., and H. O’Bryant.

Weight Training: A Scientific Approach.

Minneapolis : Burgess International. 1987.


Staron, R.S., et. al.

Strength and skeletal muscle adaptations in resistance trained women after detraining and training.

J. Appl. Physiol. 70:631-640. 1991.  

Bridges, C.R., B.J. et. al.

Skeletal muscle bioenergetics during frequency-dependent fatigue.

Amer. J. Physiol. 29:C643-C651. 1991.  

Tabata I, et. al.

Effect of moderate-intensity endurance and high intensity intermittent training an anaerobic capacity sand VO2 max.

Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 28:1327-1330. 1996.  

Craig, B.W., J. Lucas, et. al.

The effect of running, weightlifting and a combination of both on growth hormone release.

J. Appl. Sport Sci. Res. 5(4):198-203. 1991.


Willoughby , D.

The effects of mesocycle-length weight training programs involving periodization and partially equated volumes on upper and lower body strength.

J. Strength and Cond. Res. 7(1):2-8. 1993.


MacDougall J.D.

Muscle performance and enzymatic adaptations to sprint interval training.

J of Appl. Pys. 84: 2138-2142. 1998.


Weiss, L.

The obtuse nature of muscular strength: The contribution of rest to its development and expression.

J. Appl. Sports Sci. Res. 5(4):219-227. 1991.


Corder, K.P. Potteiger, J.A., Mau, K.L., et. al.

Effects of active and passive recovery conditions on blood lactate, rating of perceived exertion and performance during resistance exercise.

Journal of Strength and Cond. Res. 14(2):1510156, 2000.


Dan Cherkin, et. al.

Archives of Internal Med. 2001.


Sinnett, Aaron, et al.

The relationship Between Field tests of Anaerobic Power and 10-km Run Performance.

J. of Str. & Cond. Res. Vol 15, #4, 405-412, 2001.


Deschenes M et al.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil. Nov;81(11 Suppl):S3-16. 2002.


AlMulla, N, et al. (2000)

Postexercise adipose tissue skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in humans: the effects of exercise intensity. J Physiol. 524:919-928. 


Havel, RJ et al. (1967)

J Appl Physiol. 23(1):90-9.


Horowitz, J., et al.

Bursts aid in increasing blood flow to fat and muscle tissue, promoting the release of fatty acids.

Am J Clin Nutr. 72(2suppl):558s-63s, 2000.:


Phelain J, et. al.

Post exercise metabolism increase compared among different intensity levels.

J Am Coll Nutr. Apr;16(2):140-6. 1997.


King, J., et al.

Med & Sci. in Sp & Exer. 33:2421. 2001.


Acheson K.J. et al.  

Glycogen synthesis vs. lipogenesis after a 500 g carb meal in man.

Metabolism. 31:1234-1240.


Flatt, J.P. et al. (1985).

Effects of dietary fat on postprandial substrate oxidation and on carb/fat balances.

J. Clin. Invest. 76:1019-1024.


Mikkelson, P.B. et al.

Effect of fat-reduced diets on 24 hour energy expenditure.

Am J. Clin Nutr. 72:1135-41.


Skov, A.R. et al.  

A randomized rtial of protein vs. carb in ad libitum fat-reduced diet for the treatment of obesity.

Int. J. Obesity. 23:528-36.


Neural adaptations to resistance training. Med. Sci Sports Exer. (1988) 29suppl): 135-145.


Fabry, P., et al.

The frequency of meals: its relation to hypercholesterolemia and decreased glucose tolerance.

Lancet, 1964; 2: 614-615.


Jenkins, D. J. A.,Wolever, T.MS., Vuksan, V., et al.

Nibbling Versus Gorging: Metabolic Advantages of Increased Meal Frequency.

New England Journal Of Medicine, 321: 929-934. 1989


McGrath , S.A. and Gibney, M.J.

The Effects of Altered Frequency of Eating on Plasma Lipids in Free-living Healthy Males on Normal Self-selected Diets.

Euro J Of Clinical Nutrition, June  (6): 402-7. 1994


International Journal Of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders, 23 (11): 1151-9. 1999.


Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sports 1998 6 (5):265-72.


Titan, S.M.O., Bingham, S., Welch, A., Luben, R, etc al.

Frequency of Eating and Concentrations of Serum Cholesterol in the Norfolk Population of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer: Cross Sectional Study.

British Medical Journal December 1, 2001; 323:1286 


Hass, C.J. et al.

Single vs. multi sets in long term recreational wt.lifters.

Med. Sci. Sport and Exer. 31:235-242. 1999.


Keeler, L.K., J. Str. Cond. Res. 15:309-14.


Moyna N., et. al.

Med. Sci. Sport and Exer. 33(8):1404-10, 2001.


University of Buffalo , J. of Nutr. Biochemistry. (


Keast, D., Arstein, D., et al.  

Depression of plasma glutamine concentration after exercise stress and its possible influence on the immune system.  

Med J Aust, 162: 15-8, 1995. 2.  



MacLennan, P.A., Smith, K., et al.  

Inhibition of protein breakdown by glutamine in perfused rat skeletal muscle.  

FEBS Lett, 257: 133-36, 1988. 3.  



Welbourne, T.C.  

Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load.  

Am J Clin Nutr, 61: 1058-61, 1995. 4.  



Welbourne, T.C., & Joshi, S.  

Interorgan glutamine metabolism during acidosis.  

Jnl Parent Ent Nutr, 14: 775-855, 1990. 5.  



Rudman, D., Kutner, M.H., et al.  

Impaired growth hormone secretion in the adult population: Relation to age and adiposity.  

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Opara, E.C., Petro A., et al.  

L-glutamine supplementation of a high fat diet reduces body weight and attenuates hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in C57BL/6J mice.  

J Nutr, 126: 273-79, 1996.  


Vincent KR, Braith RW.  

Resistance exercise and bone turnover in elderly men and women.  

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2002:34(1), pp. 17-23.  


Canadian Exercise Physiologists presentation at the annual meeting of the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, held in Quebec , Nov. 2001.  


Tremblay, A., J. Simoneau, and C.  Bouchard.    

Impact of Exercise Intensity on Body  Fatness and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism.    

Metabolism.   43(7):814-818.  1994.  


Brouns, F.  

Nutritional needs of athletes: 37-47.  

New York : John Wiley & Sons, 1993.  



Tarnopolsky, et al.  

Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean mass.  

J. of Appl. Physiol. 64: 187-193, 1988.  


N.L. Hickson, J.F. et. al.  

Urinary nitrogen excretion as influenced by a muscle-building exercise program and protein intake variation  

Nutritional Reports Itl’ 19:795-805, 1979.  


Lemon, P.W.R.  

Do athletes need more dietary protein and amino acids?  

Int’ J. of Sp. Med. 5: S39-S61, 1995.  


Rasmussen RB, et al.  

Contractile and nutritional regulation of human muscle growth.  

Exerc Sp. Sci. Rev. 31:127-131, 2003  



Rennie MJ et al.  

Control of the size of the human muscle mass.  

Ann. Rev. physiol 66:799-828, 2004  



Spriet LL, Gibala MJ  

Nutritional strategies to influence adaptations to training.  

J. sp. Sci 22:127-141, 2004  



Tipton KD, Wolfe RR,  

Protein and amino acids for athletes.  

J. Sp. Sci. 22:65-79, 2004  



Volek JS,  

Influence of nutrition on responses to resistance training.  

Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 36:689-696, 2004.  



Johnston CS, Day CS, Swan PD.  

Postprandial thermogenesis is increased 100% on a high-protein, low-fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in healthy, young women.  

Am Col Nutr, 21 (1): 55-61 (2002)  


Layman DK, Boileau RA, Erickson DJ, Painter JE, Shiue H, Sather C, Christou DD.  

A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women.  

J Nutr. 2003 Feb;133(2):411-7.  




Protein requirements and physical activity  

V.A Parizkova, Pa.Llea & Febiger, 1988.  



Kanaley, J.A et al.  

Cortisol and growth hormone responses to exercise at different times of day.  

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 86:2881-2889.  


Jacks DE, Sowash J, Anning J, McGloughlin T, Andres F.  

Effect of exercise at 3 diff. intensities on salivary cortisol.  

J Strength Cond Res. 2002 May;16(2):286-9.  



Busso, T. et al.  

Fatigue and fitness modeled from the effects of training on performance.  

Eur J Appl. Physiol. 69:50-54.  


Green, H.J. et. al.  

Mechanisms of muscle fatigue in intense exercise.  

J of Sp Sci. 15: 247-256.  


Van Pelt, R.E., et al.  

Age-related decline in RMR in physically active men: relation to exercise volume and energy intake.  

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 281:E633-E639.  


Raastad, T,. et al.  

Changes in human skeletal muscle contractility and hormone status during 2 wks. of heavy strength training.  

Eur J appl Physiol. 84:54-63. and Smith, LL. Med Sci Sports Exer. Feb;32(2):317-31. 2000.  


Sands, W., et al.

A kinematic comparison of four abdominal training devices and a traditional abdominal crunch.

J of Strength and Conditioning Research. 16:135-141


Gibala, M.J., et al.

Myofibrillar disruption following acute concentric and eccentric resistance exercise in strength-trained men.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 78:656-661.


Mclester J., et al.

Comparison of 1 day and 3 days/wk. of equal volume resistance training in experienced subjects.

J. Str. & Cond. Res. 14:273-281. 2000.


Dolezal B, et. al.

Muscle damage and resting metabolic rate after acute resistance exercise with an eccentric overload.

Med Sci in Sp and Exer. 2000 7:1909-13.


Sjodin A. et. al.

The influence of physical activity on BMR.

Med Sci in Sp and Exer. 1996 28:85-91.


Rhea, M.R. et. al.

A Comparison of linear and daily undulating periodized programs with equated volume and intensity for strength.

J Str. & Cond. Res. 16:250-255. [Ironman Nov. 2002, p. 35.


Stone, et. al.,

Health and performance related potential of resistance training.

Sports Med. 11(4):210-231.


Achten, JM., et. al.

Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation.

Med Sci in Sp and Exer. 34:92-97.

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Treuth, M. et. al.

Effect of exercise intensity on 24-hr energy expenditure and substrate oxidation.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996 Sep;28(9):1138-43.


Tremblay, Et. Al.

Impact of Exercise Intensity of Body Fatness and Skeletal Muscle Metabolism.

Metabolism. 43:814-818.


Pacheco-Sanchez, et. al.

Effect of dietary fat and two exercise protocols.

J. Am. Col. Nutr. 13:601-607, 1994


Bryner, R.W. et. al.

The effects of exercise intensity on body composition wt. loss and dietary composition in women.  

J. Am. Col. Nutr. 16:68-73, 1997.


Mc Millan, et. al.

20-hour physiological responses to a single wt. training session.

J Str. Cond. Res. 7(3)9-21, 1993.


Schuenke M. et. al.

Effect of HIT of post exercise oxygen consumption implications for BM management

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002 Mar;86(5):411-7.


Rasmussen, et. al.

Effect of exercise intensity on skeletal muscle malonyl-CoA and Acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

J Appl. Physiol. 83:1104-1109, 1997.


Stackhouse SK , et al.

Challenging the role of pH in skeletal muscle fatigue.

Phys Ther. 2001 Dec;81(12):1897-903

McLester JR

Muscle contraction and fatigue. The role of adenosine 5'-diphosphate and inorganic phosphate.

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Kraemer, et. al.

Influence of exercise training on physiological and performance changes w/wt. loss in men.

Med Sci. Sp and Exer. 31:1320-1329, 1999


Ballor D, et. al.

Resistance weight training during caloric restriction enhances lean body weight maintenance.

Amer. J Clin. Nutr. 47:19-25, 1988.


Bucci L.

Nutrients and Ergogenic aids for Sports and Exercise

CRC Press, Boca Raton , 1993.


Wang W, Basinger A, Neese RA, Christiansen M, Hellerstein MK.

Effects of nicotinic acid on fatty acid kinetics, fuel selection, and pathways of glucose production in women.

Am. J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000; 279:E50-E59.


Libonati, J.R. et al.

Brief muscle hypofusion/hyperemia:an ergogenic aid?

J Str Cond Res 15:362-366. [Ironman April 2002 – p.40].


Elizabeth J. Parks, Lauren E. Skokan, Maureen T. Timlin, Carlus S. Dingfelder

Dietary Sugars Stimulate Fatty Acid Synthesis in Adults

J. Nutr. 138:1039-1046, June 2008


Takarada, Y. Sato, Y. Ishii, N.

Effects of resistance exercise training with vascular occlusion on muscular function in athletes.

Euro. J. of Appl. Physiol. 86(4):308-314, 2002.


Takarada, Y. Sato, Y., et al.

Effects of res. Exer. Combined w/moderate vascular occlusion on muscular function in humans.

J. of Appl. Physiol. 88(6):2097-2106, 2000.


Takarada, Y., Nakamura, Y., Aruga, s., et al.

Rapid increase in plasma growth hormone after low intensity res. exer. w/vascular occlusion.

J. of Appl. Physiol. 88:61-65, 2000.


Moore DR, Burgomaster KA, Schofield LM, Gibala MJ, Sale DG, Phillips SM.

Neuromuscular adaptations in human muscle following low intensity resistance training with vascular occlusion.

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004 Aug;92(4-5):399-406.


Warman, G. et al.

The effects of timing and application of vibration on muscular contractions.

Aviation, Space and Envir. Med. 73(2): 119-127, 2002.


Issurin, V., et al.

Acute and residual effects of vibratory stimulation on explosive strength in elite and amateur athletes. J of Sport Sci. in Sports and Exer. 17(3):177-182, 1999.


Torvinen, S. et al.

Effect of four-month verticle whole-body vibration on performance and balance.

Medicine and Sci. in Sports and Exer. 34(9): 1,523-1,528, 2002


Bosco, C. et al/

Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men.

Euro. J. of Appl. Physiol. 81:449-454, 2000.


Rittweger, J. et al.

Treatment of chronic lower-back pain w/lumbar extension and whole-body vibration exercise.

Spine 27:1,829-1,834, 2002.


Issurin VB, Tenenbaum G. 

Ribstein Centre for Research and Sport Medicine Sciences, Wingate Institute for Physical Education and Sport, Netanya , Israel .

J Sports Sci. 1999 Mar;17(3):177-82.


Antonio, J., and Gonyea, W.J.

Skeletal muscle fiber hyperplasia.

Med and Sci. in Sport and Exer. 25:1333-45.


Tokmakidis, et al.

The Effects of Ibuprofen on DOMS and Muscular Performance after Eccentric Exercise.

J of Str. & Cond. Res. 17(1), 53-59, AND 197-208 2003.


Matthew R. Rhea, et al.

Comparison of Linear and Daily Undulating Periodized Programs with equated Volume and Intensity for local muscular endurance. 

J of Str. & Cond. Res. 17(1), 82-87, 2003.


Len Kravitz et al.

1 RM estimate equations. Prediction of 1 RM in H.S. Powerlifters.

J of Str. & Cond. Res. 17(1), 167-172, 2003.


Anderson, R.A. et. Al.

Tea enhances insulin activity.

J Agric Food Chemistry. 50:7182-7186.


Smilios, I. et al.

Hormonal responses after various resistance exercise protocols.

Med Sci Sp & Exer. 35:644-654.


Friedland, R.P. et al.

Patients with AD have reduced activities in midlife compared with healthy control group members. Proceedings Natl Acad Sci. 98:3440-3445.


Achten, J., et al.

Fat oxidation rates are higher during running compared with cycling over a wide range of intensities. Metabolism. 52:747-52.


Achten, J., et al

Relation between plasma lactate concentration and fat oxidation rates over a wide range of exercise intensities.

Int J Sports Med. 2004 Jan;25(1):32-7.


Leontowicz, H.

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Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Jul;28(7):933-5 A Pavlovian approach to the problem of obesity. Artificial sweeteners block ability of body to tell how many calories it has eaten and cause overeating. Davidson TL, Swithers SE.  


Kravitz, L. et al Exercise mode and gender comparisons of energy expenditure at self-selected intensities. Med. And Sci. in Sports and Exer. 29(8):1028-1035, 1997.  

Hagerman, F.C. et al  A comparison of energy expenditure during rowing and cycle ergometry. Med and Sci in Sp. And Ex. 20(5): 479-488, 1988.  

Zeni, A.I. et al  Energy Expenditure with indoor exercise machines. JAMA 275 (18): 1424-1427, 1996a.  

Andersen, LL, et al. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength. Metabolism 54(2):151-156, 2005  

Bird, SP, et al. Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance exercise in untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol 2006.  

1: Br J Nutr. 2004 Jun;91(6):951-8.  

Bolocofsky, David N.; Spinler, Dwayne; Coulthard-Morris, Linda (1985). 

Effectiveness of hypnosis as an adjunct to behavioral weight management. 

Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41 (1), 35-41.  

Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, J. (1986). 

Hypnotherapy in weight loss treatment. 

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 489-492.  

Kirsch, Irving (1996). 

Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioral weight loss treatments--Another meta-reanalysis. 

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64 (3), 517-519.  

The National Weight Control Registry Research Findings:

Klem, M.L., Wing, R.R., McGuire, M.T., Seagle, H.M., & Hill, J.O. A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1997, 66, 239-246.
Read the abstract

Shick, S.M., Wing, R.R., Klem, M.L., McGuire, M.T., Hill, J.O., & Seagle, H. Persons successful at long-term weight loss and maintenance continue to consume a low calorie, low fat diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 1998, 98, 408-413.
Read the abstract

McGuire, M.T., Wing, R.R., Klem, M.L., Seagle, H.M., & Hill, J.O. Long-term maintenance of weight loss: Do people who lose weight through various weight loss methods use different behaviors to maintain their weight? International Journal of Obesity, 1998, 22, 572-577.
Read the abstract

Klem, M.L., Wing, R.R., McGuire, M.T., Seagle, H.M., & Hill, J.O. Psychological symptoms in individuals successful at long-term maintenance of weight loss. Health Psychology, 1998, 17, 336-345.
Read the abstract

Wyatt H.R., Grunwald G.K., Seagle H.M., Klem M.L., McGuire M.T., Wing R.R. and Hill J.O. (1999). Resting energy expenditure in reduced-obese subjects in the National Weight Control Registry. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 1189-1193.
Read the abstract

McGuire, M.T., Wing, R.R., Klem, M.L., Lang, W., and Hill, J.O. What predicts weight regain among a group of successful weight losers? (1999). Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 67, 177-185.
Read the abstract

Klem, M.L., Wing, R.R., Chang, C.H., Lang, W., McGuire, M.T., Sugerman, H.J., Hutchison, S.L., Makovich, A.L., and Hill, J.O. (2000). A case-control study of successful maintenance of a substantial weight loss: Individuals who lost weight through surgery versus those who lost weight through non-surgical means. International Journal of Obesity, 24: 573-579.
Read the abstract

Klem, M.L., Wing, R.R., Lang, W., McGuire, M.T., and Hill, J.O. (2000). Does weight loss maintenance become easier over time? Obesity Research, 8: 438-444.
Read the abstract

Wyatt HR, Grunwald OK, Mosca CL, Klem ML, Wing RR, Hill JO (2002). Long-term weight loss and breakfast in subjects in the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity Research; 10:78-82.
Read the abstract

Gorin AA, Phelan S, Wing RR, Hill JO. Promoting long-term weight control: does dieting consistency matter? International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 2004 Feb; 28(2):278-81.
Read the abstract

Raynor, H., Wing, R.R., Phelan, S. (2005) Amount of food group variety consumed in the diet and long-term weight loss maintenance. Obesity Research, May;13(5):883-890.
Read the abstract

Gorin, A., Phelan, S., Hill J., Wing, R.R. (2004) Medical triggers are associated with better short- and long-term weight loss outcomes. Preventive Medicine, Sep;39(3):612-16.
Read the abstract

Phelan, S., Wing, R.R., Hill, J., Dibello, J. (2003). Recovery from relapse among successful weight maintainers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(6):1079-1084.             

Phelan, S., Wyatt, H., Hill, J., Wing, R.R. (2006) Are the Eating and Exercise Habits of Successful Weight Losers Changing? Obesity Research, April;14(4):710-716  

Raynor, D., Phelan, S., Hill, J., Wing, R.R. (2006) Television Viewing and Long-Term Weight Maintenance: Results from the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity Research, Oct;14(10):1816-1824

Phelan S, Roberts M, Lang W, Wing RR (2007). Empirical Evaluation of  Physical Activity Recommendations for Weight Control in Women. Medicine &  Science in Sports & Exercise; 39(10):1832-1836.  

Phelan S, Wyatt H, DiBello J, Fava JL, Hill JO, Wing RR (2007). Three-Year Weight Change in Successful Weight Losers Who Lost Weight in a Low-Carbohydrate Diet. Obesity; 15 (10): 2470-77.

Niemeier HM, Phelan S, Fava JL, Wing RR (2007). Internal Disinhibition Predicts Weight Regain Following Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance. Obesity; 15 (10):2485-94.

Frestedt JL, Zenk JL, Kuskowski MA, Ward LS, Bastian ED. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2008 Mar 27;5:8.

Eating breakfast helps sustain weight loss. AAOHN J. 2006 Mar;54(3):136.

Masheb RM, Grilo CM. Eating patterns and breakfast consumption in obese patients with binge eating disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2006 Nov;44(11):1545-53. Epub 2005 Dec 22.

Vander Wal JS, Marth JM, Khosla P, Jen KL, Dhurandhar NV. Short-term effect of eggs on satiety in overweight and obese subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Dec;24(6):510-5.

Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Additional protein intake limits weight regain after weight loss in humans. Br J Nutr. 2005 Feb;93(2):281-9.

Layman DK. Protein quantity and quality at levels above the RDA improves adult weight loss. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Dec;23(6 Suppl):631S-636S.

Johnston CS, Day CS, Swan PD. Postprandial thermogenesis is increased 100% on a high-protein, low-fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in healthy, young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Feb;21(1):55-61.

Gluck ME, Geliebter A, Satov T. Night eating syndrome is associated with depression, low self-esteem, reduced daytime hunger, and less weight loss in obese outpatients. Obes Res. 2001 Apr;9(4):264-7.

Monneuse MO, Bellisle F, Koppert G. Eating habits, food and health related attitudes and beliefs reported by French students. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997 Jan;51(1):46-53.

Marín-Guerrero AC, Gutiérrez-Fisac JL, Guallar-Castillón P, Banegas JR, Rodríguez-Artalejo F. Eating behaviours and obesity in the adult population of Spain. Croezen S, Visscher TL, Ter Bogt NC, Veling ML, Haveman-Nies A.

The most important risk factor for overweight and obesity was skipping breakfast. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 28 November 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602950.

Vanelli M, Iovane B, Bernardini A, Chiari G, Errico MK, Gelmetti C, Corchia M, Ruggerini A, Volta E, Rossetti S; Students of the Post-Graduate School of Paediatrics, University of Parma.

Breakfast habits of 1,202 northern Italian children admitted to a summer sport school. Breakfast skipping is associated with overweight and obesi


Magalie Lenoir, Fuschia Serre, Lauriane Cantin, Serge H. Ahmed

University Bordeaux 2, Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS, UMR 5227, Bordeaux , France  

Citation: Lenoir M, Serre F, Cantin L, Ahmed SH (2007) 

Intense Sweetness Surpasses Cocaine Reward.

Journal of Applied Physiology April 2008; 104(4):1121-8  


J Appl Physiol. 2007 Jun;102(6):2158-64. Epub 2007 Feb 22. Goto K, Ishii N, Mizuno A, Takamatsu K.  

J Appl Physiol 102: 1439-1447, 2007. First published December 14, 2006; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01098.2006

Caffeine and athletic performance:

1. Ahrens, J.N., S.H. Crixell, L.K. Lloyd, and J.L. Walker. The physiological effects of caffeine in women during treadmill walking. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21:164-168. 2007.

2. Antonio, J. Caffeine: The forgotten ergogenic aid. Strength Cond. J. 26:50-51. 2004.

3. Armstrong, L.E., D.J. Casa, C.M. Maresh, and M.S. Ganio. Caffeine, fluid-electrolyte balance, temperature regulation, and exercise-heat tolerance. Exerc. Sport Sci Rev. 35:135-140. 2007.

4. Bell , D.G., & T.M. McLellan. Effect of repeated caffeine ingestion on repeated exhaustive exercise endurance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 35:1348-1354. 2003.

5. Birnbaum, L.J., & J.D. Herbst. Physiologic effects of caffeine on cross-country runners. J. Strength Cond. Res. 18:463-465. 2004.

6. Bruce, C.R., Anderson , M.E. , Fraser, S.F., Stepto, N.K., Klein, R., Hopkins , W.G., & J.A. Hawley. Enhancement of 2000-m rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32:1958-1963. 2000.

7. Butts, N.K., & D. Crowell. Effect of caffeine ingestion on cardiorespiratory endurance in men and women. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport , 56:301-305. 1985.

8. Costill, D.L., G.P. Dalsky, and W.J. Fink. Effects of caffeine ingestion on
metabolism and exercise performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc ., 10:155-158. 1978.

9. Foltz, E., A. Ivy, & C. Barborka. The use of double work periods in the study of fatigue and the influence of caffeine on recovery. American Journal of Physiology , 136:79-86. 1942.

10. Foltz, E., A. Ivy, & C. Barborka. The influence of amphetamine (Benzedrine) sulfate, D-desoxyephedrine hydrochloride (Pervitan), and caffeine upon work output and recovery when rapidly exhausting work is done by trained subjects. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine , 28:603-606. 1943.

11. Graham, T.E. Caffeine and exercise: Metabolism, endurance and performance. Sports Med . 31:786-807. 2001.

12. Graham, T.E., & L.L. Spriet. Caffeine and exercise performance. Gatorade
Sports Science Institute: Sports Science Exchange , 9:60-64. 1996.

13. Graham, T.E. and L.L. Spriet. Performance and metabolic responses to a high caffeine dose during prolonged exercise. J. Appl. Physiol . 71:2292-2298. 1991.

14. Hoffman, J.R., J. Kang, N.A. Ratamess, P.F. Jennings, G.T. Mangine, and A.D. Faigenbaum. Effect of nutritionally enriched coffee consumption on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21:456-459. 2007.

15. Ivy, J.L., D.L. Costill, W.J. Fink, and R.W. Lower. Influence of caffeine and carbohydrate feedings on endurance performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc ., 11:6-11. 1978.

16. Kalmar , J.M., and E. Cafarelli. Effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function. J. Appl. Physiol . 87:801-808. 1999.

17. Lopes, J.M., M. Aubier, J. Jardim, J.V. Aranda, and P.T. Macklem. Effect of caffeine on skeletal muscle function before and after fatigue. J. Appl. Physiol . 54:1303-1305. 1983.

18. Malek, M.H., T.J. Housh, J.W. Coburn, T.W. Beck, R.J. Schmidt, D.J. Housh, and G.O. Johnson. Effects of eight weeks of caffeine supplementation and endurance training on aerobic fitness and body composition. J. Strength Cond. Res . 20:751-755. 2006.

19. McArdle, W.D., F.I. Katch, and V.L. Katch. Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance (fifth edition). Baltimore , MD : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2001. p. 564-568.

20. McArdle, W.D., F.I. Katch, and V.L. Katch. Sports and exercise nutrition . Baltimore , MD : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 1999. p. 321-326.

21. National Collegiate Athletic Association. NCAA Banned-Drug Classes 2004-2005. Available at:

22. Spriet, L.L. Caffeine. In: Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sport and Exercise . M.S. Bahrke and C.E. Yesalis, eds. Champaing , IL : Human Kinetics, 2002. p. 267-278.

23. Weir, J., T.D. Noakes, K. Myburgh, and B. Adams. A high carbohydrate diet negates the metabolic effect of caffeine during exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc ., 19:100-105. 1987.

24. Williams, J.H. Caffeine, neuromuscular function and high-intensity exercise performance. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 31:481-489. 1991.  

Protein right after a workout for optimal absorption:

1. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 7th ed. Lipincott, Williams and Wilkins: Philadelphia , Pa. , 2006.

2. Arciero, P.J., et al. Increased dietary protein and combined high-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise improves body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 16(4): 373-392, 2006.

3. Campbell , W.W., et al. Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60(2): 167-175, 1994.

4. Cribb, P.J., and A. Hayes. Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 38(11): 1918-1925, 2006.

5. Dreyer, H.C., and E. Volpi. Role of protein and amino acids in the pathophysiology and treatment of sarcopenia. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 24(2): 140S-145, 2005.

6. Elliot, T.A., et al. Milk ingestion stimulates net muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 38(4): 667-674, 2006.

7. Esmarck, B., et al. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans. The Journal of Physiology 535(Pt 1): 301-311, 2001.

8. Forbes, G.B., and E. Halloran. The adult decline in lean body mass. Human Biology 48(1): 161-173, 1976.

9. Keys, A., H.L. Taylor and F. Grande. Basal metabolism and age of adult man. Metabolism 22(4): 579-587, 1973.

10. Phillips, S.M., et al. Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. American Journal of Physiology 273(1 Pt 1): E99-107, 1997.

11. Pratley, R., et al. Strength training increases resting metabolic rate and norepinephrine levels in healthy 50- to 65-year-old men. Journal of Applied Physiology 76(1): 133-137, 1994.

12. Tipton, K.D., and R.R. Wolfe. Exercise, protein metabolism and muscle growth. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 11(1): 109-132, 2001.

13. Westcott, W., and T. Baechle. Strength Training Past 50, 2nd ed. Human Kinetics: Champaign , Ill. , 2007.

14. Westcott, W., and J. Guy. A Physical Evolution. IDEA Today Vol. 14: 58-65, 1996.

15. Westcott, W., and G. Reinl. Get Stronger, Feel Younger Rodale: New York , N.Y. , 2007.

16. Westcott, W., and R. Winett. Applying the ACSM guidelines. FMY Vol. 22.: 40-43, 2006.  


Scierntific Evidence Support for Proper Hydration in fitness, fat loss and health:

Ganio MS, Casa DJ, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM.

Influence of Hydration and Electrolyte Supplementation on Incidence and Time to Onset of Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramps.  

J Athl Train. 2005 Jun;40(2):71-75 

Jung AP, Bishop PA, Al-Nawwas A, Dale RB.

Hydration and cognition: a critical review and recommendations for future research.  

J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):555S-561S 

Lieberman HR.

Dehydration and cognitive performance.  

J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):549S-554S. 

Grandjean AC, Grandjean NR.

Hydration and disease.  

J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):535S-541S. 

Manz F.

Hydration and cognitive function in children.  

Nutr Rev. 2006 Oct;64(10 Pt 1):457-64. 

D'Anci KE, Constant F, Rosenberg IH.

The effect of voluntary dehydration on cognitive functions of elementary school children.  

Acta Paediatr. 2005 Nov;94(11):1667-73. 

Bar-David Y, Urkin J, Kozminsky E.

The importance of good hydration for day-to-day health. Ritz P, Berrut G.  

Nutr Rev. 2005 Jun;63(6 Pt 2):S6-13. 

Koulmann N, Banzet S, Bigard AX.  

Physical activity in the heat: physiology of hydration recommendations

Med Trop (Mars). 2003;63(6):617-26. 

Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM, Watson P.  

Exercise, heat, hydration and the brain. 

J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):604S-612S. 

Murray B.  

Hydration and physical performance.  

J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):542S-548S. 


cancer of the urinary bladder was reduced significantly by a high fluid intake (2.5 liters or more) Michaud, DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK , Rimm EB, Curhan GC, Willett WC, and Giovannucci EL. Fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer in men. N Engl J Med 340: 1390-1397, 1999 (Commentaries. N Engl J Med 340: 1424-1426, 1999 and 341: 847-848, 1999.)

A similar correlation has been reported for colorectal cancer and premalignant adenomatous polyps Lubin, F, Rozen P, Arieli B, Farbstein M, Knaani Y, Bat L, and Farbstein H. Nutritional and lifestyle habits and water-fiber interaction in colorectal adenoma etiology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6: 79-85, 1997 AND Shannon, J, White E, Shattuck AL, and Potter JD. Relationship of food groups and water intake to colon cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5: 495-502, 1996 AND Tang, R, Wang JY, Lo SK, and Hsieh LL. Physical activity, water intake and risk of colorectal cancer in Taiwan: a hospital-based case-control study. Int J Cancer 82: 484-489, 1999

women who drank five or more glasses of water per day (1,185 ml or more) reduced their risk of fatal coronary heart disease by ~41% compared with women who drank two glasses or less (474 ml or less). The comparable figure in men was 54% less risk. The effect was limited to water; in fact, the drinking of "fluids other than water" (coffee, tea, juices, soft drinks) appeared to increase the risk of fatal coronary heart disease. Chan, J, Knutsen SF, Blix GG, Lee JW, and Fraser GE. Water, other fluids, and fatal coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 155: 827-833, 2002

prevention of other diseases, conditions of the urinary system, such as urinary tract infections: Stamm WE. Cystitis and urethritis. In: Diseases of the Kidney (5th ed.), edited by Schrier RW and Gottshalk CW. Boston: Little, Brown, 1992, p. 1007-1027. AND and urinary stones: Borghi, L, Meschi T, Amato F, Briganti A, Novarini A, and Giannini A. Urinary volume, water and recurrences in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: a 5-year randomized prospective study. J Urol 155: 839-843, 1996

Losing weight. There is some evidence, in both women” Lappalainen, R, Mennen L, van Weert L, and Mykkänen H. Drinking water with a meal: a simple method of coping with feelings of hunger, satiety and desire to eat. Eur J Clin Nutr 47: 815-819, 1993 AND men: Rolls, BJ, Castellanos VH, Halford JC, Kilara A, Panyam D, Pelkman CL, Smith GP, and Thorwart ML. Volume of food consumed affects satiety in men. Am J Clin Nutr 67: 1170-1177, 1998

water drunk along with a meal or water incorporated into food (74, 85) does promote satiety: Rolls, BJ, Bell EA, and Thorwart ML. Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women. Am J Clin Nutr 70: 448-455, 1999

: Stookey, JD. Energy density, energy intake and weight status in a large free-living sample of Chinese adults: exploring the underlying roles of fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber and water intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr 55: 349-359, 2001

Benefits are claimed for fatigue, arthritis, lack of mental alertness, angina, migraine, hypertension, asthma, dry cough, dry skin, acne, nosebleed, depression: Water, Water Everywhere. HealthNews 7: 3, 2001. AND: Why is tea healthy? The importance of fluid intake & replacement [Online]. The Tea Council.;tea_hel/fluid.htm AND: McCord, H. Are you drinking too much water? Prevention 53: 62-63, 2001.

Helps to prevent water retention: Choukroun, G, Schmitt F, Martinez F, Drüeke TB, and Bankir L. Low urine flow reduces the capacity to excrete a sodium load in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 273: R1726-R1733, 1997  

Eight Glasses a Day (or more) For Optimal Health and Dosease Prevention: Boschmann, M. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, December 2003; vol. 88: pp. 6015-6019. Leslie Bonci, MPH, RD,spokeswoman, American Dietetic Association; director, sports nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Daniel Moser, PhD, exercise physiologist, Elite Health and Wellness, Philadelphia .  

Studies on proper hydration for sports performance and hindrance with dehydration: (Int J Neurosci. 2002 Oct;112(10):1191-206), (Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Jan;35(1):150-6), (Sports Med. 2002;32(15):959-71), (J Strength Cond Res. 2001 Nov;15(4):514-8), (J Sci Med Sport. 2001 Jun;4(2):179-87), (J Am Diet Assoc. 1999 Feb;99(2):207-12), (Int J Sports Med. 1998 Jun;19 Suppl 2:S133-5), (Sports Med. 1997 Jul;24(1):38-54), (Int J Sports Med. 1996 Feb;17(2):85-91), (Clin Sports Med. 1995 Jan;14(1):23-32), (Bol Asoc Med P R. 1990 Aug;82(8):366-8), (Sports Med. 1989 Aug;8(2):80-100).  

The effects of fluid restriction on hydration status and subjective feelings in man. Shirreffs SM, Merson SJ, Fraser SM, Archer DT. School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University , Loughborough LE11 3TU , UK .  

AMA Arch Intern Med. 1955 Aug;96(2):142-52. Headache and hydration; the significance of two varieties of fluid accumulation in patients with vascular headache of the migraine type.

Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1955-1956;(80th Meeting):217-9. Studies on headache: headache and hydration.

Clin Sports Med. 2007 Jan;26(1):1-16 Evidence-based approach to lingering hydration questions.  


Uehara H, Suganuma T, Negishi S, Uda Y, Furukawa Y, Ueno S, Sato K. Physical properties of two isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. J. Am. Oil Chem. Sco. 85(1):29-36 (2008).

AbuGhazaleh AA. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil supplementation on milk conjugated linoleic acid content for grazing dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 141(3-4):220-232 (2008).

Park JHY. Inhibition of colon cancer cell growth by dietary components: role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. 17:257-260 (Suppl. 1) (2008).

Wallace RJ. Gut microbiology - broad genetic diversity, yet specific metabolic niches. Animal 2(5):661-668 (2008).

Wood JD, Enser M, Fisher AV, Nute GR, Sheard PR, Richardson RI , Hughes SI, Whittington FM. Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: A review. Meat Sci. 78(4):343-358 (2008).

Cherniack EP. Potential applications for alternative medicine to treat obesity in an aging population. Alternative Med. Rev. 13(1):34-42 (2008).

Diaz ML, Watkins BA, Li Y, Anderson RA, Campbell WW. Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women. J. Nutr. Biochem. 19(1):61-68 (2008).

Motard-Belanger A, Charest A, Grenier G, Paquin P, Chouinard Y, Lemieux S, Couture P, Lamarche B. Study of the effect of trans fatty acids from ruminants on blood lipids and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87(3):593-599 (2008).

Sneddon AA, Tsofliou F, Fyfe CL, Matheson I, Jackson DM, Horgan G, Winzell MS, Wahle KWJ, Ahren B, Williams LM. Effect of a conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 fatty acid mixture on body composition and adiponectin. Obesity 16(5):1019-1024 (2008).

Bissonauth V, Chouinard PY, Marin J, Leblanc N, Richard D, Jacques H. Altered lipid response in hamsters fed cis-9,trans-11+trans-8,cis-10 conjugated linoleic acid mixture. Lipids 43(3):251-258 (2008).

Diniz YS, Santos PP, Assalin HB, Souza GA, Rocha KKHR, Ebaid GMX, Seiva FRF, Amauchi JF, Novelli Filho JLVB, Novelli ELB. Conjugated linoleic acid and cardiac health: Oxidative stress and energetic metabolism in standard and sucrose-rich diets. European J. Pharmacol. 579(1-3):318-325 (2008).

Iqbal MJ, Higginbotham A, Chickris N, Bollaert M, Rockway S, Banz WJ. A combination of a CLA-DAG oil modifies the diabetic phenotype in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Hormone Metabolic Res. 40(4):262-268 (2008).

Mandir N, Goodlad RA. Conjugated linoleic acids differentially alter polyp number and diameter in the Apc(min/+) mouse model of intestinal cancer. Cell Proliferation 41(2):279-291 (2008).

Yanagita T, Nagao K. Functional lipids and the prevention of the metabolic syndrome. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. 17:189-191 (Suppl. 1) (2008).

Bauman DE, Perfield JW, Harvatine KJ, Baumgard LH. Regulation of fat synthesis by conjugated linoleic acid: Lactation and the ruminant model. J. Nutr. 138(2):403-409 (2008). 

Huang Y, Schoonmaker JP, Bradford BJ, Beitz DC . Response of milk fatty acid composition to dietary supplementation of soy oil, conjugated linoleic acid, or both. J. Dairy Sci. 91(1):260-270 (2008). 

Nagao K, Inoue N, Ujino Y, Higa K, Shirouchi B, Wang YM, Yanagita T. Effect of leptin infusion on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in diet-induced lipodystrophy model mice. Lipids Health Dis. 7: art. 8 (2008).

Zhang HJ, Tian YD, Guo YM, Yuan JM. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid improves antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. Brit. Poultry Sci. 49(2):213-221 (2008).

Conjugated linoleic acid: A powerful anticarcinogen from animal fat sources

Ip C.; Scimeca J.A.; Thompson H.J.
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Differential stimulatory and inhibitory responses of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid in culture

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Conjugated linoleic acid suppresses the growth of human breast adenocarcinoma cells in SCID mice

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Lymphatic recovery, tissue distribution, and metabolic effects of conjugated lioleic acid in rats

Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry ( USA ) , 1997, 8/1 (38-43)

Proliferative responses of normal human mammary and MCF-7 breast cancer cells to linoleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosanoid synthesis inhibitors in culture

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Effect of timing and duration of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on mammary cancer prevention

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Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans  Leah D Whigham, Abigail C Watras and Dale A Schoeller From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (LDW), and the Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (ACW and DAS)  

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J Appl Physiol 102: 1439-1447, 2007. First published December 14, 2006